Online tutorials can be an effective strategy to enhance teaching, whether instruction is entirely web-based, or supplements a traditional face-to-face class. While the design of online tutorials range from passive and basic to interactive and sophisticated, many times design decisions are made by costs, resource demand, and time considerations.
Simple web-based tutorials can be designed to display content in a text and/or image format. Students passively view website material much as they would read a textbook. Indeed, these tutorials have come to be labeled ‘electronic page turners’. A related format is the ubiquitous PowerPoint Slide presentation, requiring students to view slides in either a manual or automated manner. A voice narration can be added to enhance the experience, but ultimately, this type of tutorial demands minimal interaction from users.
Other online tutorials utilize technology that record all onscreen activity. An example is tutorials created with the Sympodium Smart panel display, an increasingly common item in on-campus smart classrooms. In addition to displaying PowerPoint slides, faculty can incorporate text, images, video, audio, and Flash-animated lessons. Faculty can also draw freehand shapes, equations, and figures. Most of the content can be manipulated (magnified, cloned, hidden, etc.). Several years ago, a math instructor at NIU developed a tutorial describing Inverse Trigonometric functions. Using the Smart Notebook software ‘Record’ feature on the Sympodium Smart panel display, the instructor was able to document a session writing out lesson notes (primarily mathematical equations) with an accompanying voice narration. Figure 1 displays a screen capture of the online video tutorial that students could review, pause, and skip ahead or behind, as many times as needed.
More recently, another faculty member used a similar technology to recreate the ‘Intro to the Course’ lesson, one of only three planned face-to-face sessions in a primarily online course. After the initial face-to-face class meeting was cancelled due to inclement weather, the faculty member developed a tour of the course website, which contained a myriad of elements. Every aspect of the tour was recorded, along with voice narration, as it would have occurred in the face-to-face classroom session. Figures 2 and 3 exhibit how an area of the website is zoomed in upon for added emphasis.
Other tools go beyond recording online activity. The software program ‘Articulate Engage’ allows faculty to develop tutorials that require a higher degree of student/content interaction. Using pre-designed templates, content can be presented in one of 10 different interaction styles including Process (allowing users to discover the steps of a linear process), labeled graphics (identifying the key elements of an image), and a timeline (discovering the events of a timeline) [See Figure 4].
Other than the selection and refinement of appropriate content, most of the tutorials mentioned in this article do not require a significant time or resource commitment to develop.
However, online tutorials can be quite sophisticated and comprehensive, demanding a high degree of interactivity from students. Tutorial features can include multiple layers of content, multimedia files, hyperlinks to relevant websites, quizzes, Flash-based games/instructional modules, and case studies with decision-branching sequences. While the quality can be exceptional, these tutorials ‘projects’ can be costly and time consuming, requiring a design team made up of content experts, instructional designers, artists and programmers. An example of this type of tutorial is the NIU Responsible Conduct of Research website that allows users access to participate in a series of online tutorials (www.niu.edu/rcrportal). Users can explore research integrity issues in the areas of data management, research mentoring, collaborative research, peer review, and authorship.
While there are resources on campus that can assist faculty to develop sophisticated and elegant online tutorials, staff in the Faculty Development and Instructional Design Center can assist instructors on developing basic, yet fairly interactive online tutorials. For information contact Faculty Development.